Get America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and PDF

By Robert Shenk

In a high-tempo sequence of operations during the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and japanese Mediterranean, a small American fleet of destroyers and different naval vessels answered ably to a number of significant foreign crises together with the final days of the Russian Revolution and the 1920-1922 Turkish Nationalist Revolution. officials and males of the navy's "four-piper" destroyers begun through investigating conditions at the floor in mainland Turkey correct after global battle I, and by means of transporting American aid groups to ports all through Turkey and Southern Russia to help the tens of hundreds of thousands of orphans and refugees who had survived the wartime Armenian genocide.

Then the destroyers assisted within the ultimate evacuation of 150,000 White Russians from the Crimea to Constantinople (one of the ultimate acts of the Russian Revolution); coordinated the visits of the Hoover grain ships to ports in Southern Russia the place hundreds of thousands have been enduring a horrendous famine; witnessed and pronounced at the bad dolorosa of the Greeks of the Pontus regious of Turkey; and, in September of 1922, performed the evacuation of thousands of Greek and Armenian refugees from burning Smyrna. This latter occasion used to be the cataclysmic end of the Turkish Nationalist Revolutino, which had all started in early 1920.

After Smyrna, the destroyers escorted Greek steamers of their rescue of ethnic Christian civilians being expelled from all of the ports of Anatolian Turkey. because the end of a protracted warfare among Nationalist Turks and an invading Hellenic Greek military, those humans have been being pressured out in their ancestral houses by way of the Turks. occasionally American destroyers carried enormous quantities of such refugees to pleasant ports all alone climate decks.

Upon the burning of Smyrna of September of 1922, Admiral Mark Bristol's small fleet had grown to a couple 26 naval vessels, so much of them destroyers, even if a few cruisers, naval fix vessels and provide ships additionally got here, and the battleships Arizona and Utah additionally seemed in brief. It used to be in the course of 1922 that the destroyer BAinbridge rescued 482 of 495 males, ladies and kids from the burning French delivery Vinh lengthy in teh Sea of Marmora. The destroyer entire this via the expedient of ramming the massive French send so the exploding ammunition couldn't proceed to strength the vessels aside. For this motion, Lieut.Commander W. Atlee Edwards used to be offered the Medal of Honor by means of the USA, and the Legion of Honor via France.

Over 4 years, Admiral Bristol maintained a robust grip on American naval and diplomatic affairs in the course of the sector. founded on the American Embassy at Constantinople, Bristol additionally labored to additional American company pursuits in Turkey, and tended to want Turks over Greeks and Armenians within the strategy. Many americans have been confident that Bristol was once biased on behalf of the Turks, and a pair of army captains risked their careers via conversing out approximately imminent Turkish massacres that Bristol desired to hush up.

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America's Black Sea Fleet: The U.S. Navy Amidst War and Revolution, 1919–1923 by Robert Shenk

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